저자명 정세환 
년도 2012 

Lightweight vehicle design is a recent mega-trend in the auto industries for improvement of fuel effi-ciency to meet consolidated emission-gas regulation. Lightweight design, however, must be accompanied by crashworthiness of auto-body for passenger safety. One of the solutions for the two contradicted problems is to replace conventional steels with lighter and stronger materials such as aluminum alloys and advanced high strength steels (AHSS) in order to achieve both enhanced crashworthiness and lightweight design of auto-body. AHSS and ultra high strength steel (UHSS) have been steadily developed by steel companies and the application of AHSS and UHSS have been rapidly expanded in auto-body structures.

The auto-body design is usually performed to achieve lightweight design with enhanced crashworthi-ness by numerical analyses which require reliable material data of steel sheets. The material properties need to be acquired at a wide range of strain rates. The strain rates in an auto-body at car crash are evaluated in a wide range such that the maximum strain rate reaches to 300/sec–500/sec while the minimum strain rate is near quasi-static. Such variation of strain rates has a significant effect on the material properties of auto-body struc-tures. Generally the flow stress of a steel sheet tends to increase as the strain rate increases. For accurate de-signs and analyses, the material properties of steel sheets in auto-bodies need to be measured at a wide range of strain rates with an appropriate measurement procedure.

Many researchers have studied experimental methods to identify tensile properties of materials at in-termediate strain rates. The servo-hydraulic machine provides the advantages of precise control of the test speed at a wide range of strain rates, resulting that a generous portion of researches have been conducted with hydraulic testing machines for material properties at intermediate strain rates. Such experimental data for the tensile properties have to be acquired considering the standard uncertainty as well as the reliability and the traceability of the experiment. While the standardized test and verification methods have been established for the quasi-static tensile tests, the one for high strain rate tests has not be established. The standard testing method was proposed by ISO 26203-2 for the high strain rate tensile test in 2011, although there is not enough information about reliability assessment of measurement system. After the guide to the expression of uncer-tainty in measurement (GUM) was published, some of researchers conducted estimation of uncertainties in tensile properties. Beside many enthusiastic studies, uncertainty sources in determining the true stress with respect to the true strain have not been investigated at intermediate strain rates.

This paper is concerned with the standard uncertainty of the tensile properties of auto-body steel sheets at intermediate strain rates ranged from 1/sec to 100/sec. A procedure to obtain true stress–true strain data is properly designed for the experiment and data acquisition. An analytic model is then established to evaluate the standard uncertainty of the measurand of the true stress, which is a function of the input quantities: the

tensile load; the initial length, the thickness and width of a specimen; and the deformed length of a specimen. Sources of uncertainties of the input quantities are evaluated for the high speed tensile test with their associat-ed sensitivity coefficients. Uncertainty of the stress data acquired is also considered in the procedure of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) smoothing process used to remove unnecessary signals acquired from experi-ments. Image analysis using a high speed camera is carried out to measure deformation of the specimen dur-ing high speed tensile tests with proper uncertainty evaluation. A combined standard uncertainty is evaluated from the uncertainties of the input quantities as well as the influence factor for the true stress of auto-body steel sheets at intermediate strain rates. Some examples are presented for the standard uncertainty evaluation of auto-body steel sheets such as SPCC, DP590 and TRIP590. The results demonstrate that the standard un-certainty evaluation procedure has been successfully applied to various kinds of steel sheets.

Effects of the uncertainty on the dynamic deformation analysis are investigated using a stochastic approach

which is called Monte Carlo method. The probability distribution of obtained true stress data is defined with

the normal distribution function. The probability distribution function of the true stress is estimated by

combining all probability distribution functions for the input quantities and influence quantities. The

combination of the probability function is shown to be properly approximated with the normal distribution

function. Random samples are generated for the true stress data according to the normal distribution which is

identified with measured true stress and the standard uncertainty. Generated random samples for the true stress

data are applied into two numerical simulations; dynamic buckling analysis of a circular tube and crash analysis of a front side member. The effects of the uncertainty on the numerical analyses are evaluated with statistical observations of the analysis results. The results presented in the Monte Carlo simulations show similar level of variance to that of material properties. Consequently, the true stress data is obtained with properly evaluated measurement uncertainty and the effects induced by variability of material properties is statistically estimated on numerical analyses for crashworthiness evaluation of auto-body parts.

번호 제목 저자명 날짜 조회 수
27 Study on Dynamic Tensile Tests of Auto-body Steel Sheet at the Intermediate Strain Rate for Material Constitutive Equations (차체강판의 중변형률 속도에서의 동적 인장시험 및 물성 구성방정식에 관한 연구) 임지호  2005.11.29 27388
26 A New Ductile Fracture Criterion for the Formability Prediction of Steel Sheets and Its Application to Finite Element Analysis (강판의 성형성 예측을 위한 새로운 연성 파괴 조건 및 유한 요소 해석에의 응용) [1] Yanshan Lou  2012.12.10 23220
25 Forming Limit Diagram of Auto-body Steel Sheets at High Strain Rates for Sheet Metal Forming and Crashworthiness (박판성형 및 충돌성능 향상을 위한 고변형률속도에서의 차체강판 성형한계도) 김석봉  2010.07.13 23183
24 Analysis of Elasto-Plastic Stress Waves by a Time Discontinuous Variational Integrator of Hamiltonian with a Second-Order Integration Scheme of the Constitutive Model (해밀토니안의 시간 불연속 변분적분기와 구성방정식의 2차 정확도 적분법을 이용한 탄소 조상순  2008.12.15 23150
23 A Study on the Tension/Compression Hardening Behavior of Auto-body Steel Sheets Considering the Pre-strain and the Strain Rate (초기 변형률 및 변형률 속도를 고려한 차체 강판의 인장/압축 경화 거동에 관한 연구) [1] 배기현  2011.01.11 22497
22 A Study on Material Properties of OFHC Copper Film at High Strain Rates using High-Speed Micro Material Testing Machine (고속마이크로재료시험기를 이용한 무산소동 박판의 고변형률속도 재료물성치 연구) 김진성  2010.07.13 21964
21 Finite Element Inverse Approach and Initial Guess Generation for Sheet Metal Forming Analysis of Complicated Auto-body Members (복잡한 차체부재의 박판성형공정을 위한 유한요소 역해석 및 초기추측치 계산) 김승호  2005.11.29 20635
20 A Study on the Dynamic Failure Model of a Spot Weld under Combined Loading Conditions for Auto-body Crash Analyses (차체용 부재의 충돌해석을 위한 복합하중조건에서 점용접부의 동적 파단모델 연구) [1] 송정한  2008.07.24 20490
19 Optimum Process Design in Sheet Metal Forming Processes using Finite Element Sensitivity Analysis (유한요소 민감도해석을 이용한 박판금속성형에서의 공정변수 최적설계) [1] 김세호  2005.11.29 20324
18 Strain-Rate Dependent Anisotropic Yield Criteria for Auto-body Steel Sheets (자동차용 강판의 변형률속도 의존 이방성 항복함수에 관한 연구) 허지향  2012.12.11 20032
17 Evaluation of a cast-joining process of dual metal crankshafts for heavy-duty engines with ductile cast iron and high strength forged steel(구상흑연주철과 고강도 단조강의 주조접합 이종금속을 이용한 중대형 엔진 크랭크샤프트의 평가) 한 신  2010.07.13 19387
» Measurement Uncertainty Evaluation for High Strain Rate Tensile Properties of Auto-body Steel Sheet (자동차용 강판 고속인장물성 데이터의 측정불확도 산출) 정세환  2012.12.10 19312
15 Development of a Nonlinear Degenerated Shell Element with the Drilling Degree of Freedom by the Cubic Polynomial Interpolation and the Assumed Strain Method (드릴링 자유도의 삼차 근사법과 대체변형률법을 이용한 비선형 감절점 쉘 요소의 개발) 이형욱  2005.11.29 19215
14 Dynamic Formulation of Finite Element Limit Analysis for Impact Simulation of Structural Members (구조부재의 충돌해석을 위한 유한요소 극한해석의 동적 수식화) 김기풍  2005.11.29 19191
13 Rate Dependent Hardening Model for Pure Titanium Considering the Effect of Deformation Twinning (쌍정의 영향을 고려한 티타늄의 변형률속도 의존 경화 모델) 안광현  2012.12.12 18976
12 Microscopic investigation of the strain rate hardening for auto-body steel sheet(차체강판 변형률속도 경화의 미시적 관찰) 윤종헌  2010.07.13 18601
11 Finite Element Simulation of 3-dimensional Superplastic blow forming with diffusion bonding (유한요소법을 이용한 초소성 재료의 삼차원 확산 접합 및 압력 성형 해석) 이기석  2005.11.29 18463
10 Crash Analysis of Auto-body Structures with an Explicit Finite Element Method ( 외연적 유한요소법을 이용한 차체 구조물의 충돌해석 ) 강우종  2005.11.29 18137
9 Shell Element Formulation for Limit Analysis of Thin-Walled Structures ( 박판부재의 붕괴거동해석을 위한 극한해석의 쉘요소 수식화 ) 김현섭  2005.11.29 16259
8 A Study on a Continuum Damage Yield Function to Predict Ductile Fracture of Materials (재료의 연성파단을 예측하기 위한 연속체 손상 항복 함수에 관한 연구) 고윤기  2012.12.10 16151